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Autonomy of academic freedom, university and professor are treated school
From;    Author:Stand originally


Europe's earliest university appears in the Christian era 11 centuries end. Begin from 1087 about, the countess Matilda of Tuscany invites Irnerius of crackajack Roman law teacher to arrive the Bolunya of Italian north is tuitional Roman law, the student of European each district is attracted, how are these people organized become an issue very quickly together.
Because learn those who lay a number to soar, the partnership that forms between inchoate teachers and students is apparent no longer appropriate. Then students are the means organization that meets according to the fellow villager rises first, but the law belonging to a person that the fellow villager is met and cannot cast off each nation, and students come the just that this studies is to be able to become each nation the Roman law of common law. The school still needs a form that accords with its content. This form was found in the notional tool of Roman law eventually, that is Universitas, one kind has the mass organizations of independent law character. Bolunya has such two Universitas at that time, an origin is comprised with boreal student from the the Alps, an origin is comprised with the student south from the the Alps. The existence of Universitas is not a condition with the existence of its member, the member of the university is OK and fluctuant, but university perpetuation; The university won the stable legal form that belongs to his eventually.
Internally, the criminal with extensive to member exercise Universitas and civil administer, the mutual support on studies in the life between the member that organize; External, it is in charge of the bargaining with urban authorities, professor and landlord. This is the commune of a student actually. Its premier thing can meet the representing of the election to comprise by each fellow villager, total board reelection elects a director. The director is in charge of awarding bachelor's degree. The director still appoints to call " the professor reports group " student organization, be in charge of reporting behavior of neglect one's duty. If the teacher is short on education time jin little 2, be punished possibly by the fine of Universitas. Total board promulgated university byelaw, the square field surface of the discipline of the economic general affairs to the university, student and professor and course make a provision. University byelaw is in after promulgating must not change inside 20 years, unless the student is mixed,teach two respects to agree consistently.
Apparent, in Bolunya the autonomic high school student of the university takes dominant place. The professoriate that professors comprise has authority to the organization takes an exam and admit doctoral candidate; Because the professor must have a doctor's degree, so this influence namely the influence of the member that professoriate admits him.
Dominant position of the student basically is decided by their economic position. The student is not to come from the rich home children of European each district to namely claustral is sponsorred, their arrival brought abiding prosperity to Bolunya. From 12 to 13 centuries, student person ever reached 10 thousand person when number is maximum, little when also have 1 1000 people. Bolunya's estate and meal course of study carry Lai Xuesheng. Professor pay is paid by university byelaw directly by the student that attend class. If the student is dissatisfactory, they can take a professor to go to other city easily.
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